Featured Articles

Volume 4 | No. 1 | January 2015

Combined Gs and Gq signaling of GPR40 is associated with robust incretin secretagogue actionHauge and colleagues compare a series of GPR40 agonists for their signal transduction and binding properties. They find that GPR40, which generally is considered to be a Gq coupled receptor, can signal efficiently through Gs in response to some synthetic agonists. These Gq + Gs agonists stimulate incretin secretion robustly both ex vivo and in vivo.

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Neonatal overnutrition causes early alterations in the central response to peripheral ghrelinMice raised in small litters become overweight during lactation and remain overweight as adults. Collden and colleagues show that neonatal overnutrition alters the ability of peripheral ghrelin to act on the hypothalamus during an important period of growth and development. The findings support the concept that neuroendocrine defects during critical periods of development can lead to lifelong metabolic perturbations.

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Maternal high-fat diet and obesity compromise fetal hematopoiesisMultiple lines of evidence present prenatal development as a period of global susceptibility for diet-induced metabolic injury, fetal programming and postnatal organ dysfunction. Kamimae-Lanning and colleagues now identify the hematopoietic compartment as a previously unrecognized target for nutritional developmental programming. Metabolic cues impact stem cell development, lineage specification, and early formation and reconstitution of the blood ystem.

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High fat diet-induced modifications in membrane lipid and protein signaturesKahle and colleagues describe comprehensive changes in membrane lipid and protein signatures prior to and throughout the development of high fat diet-mediated hepatic insulin resistance. These changes likely modulate the properties of membranes, in particular those of mitochondria, which are highly abundant in hepatocytes.

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Fructose ingestion acutely stimulates circulating FGF21 levels in humansThe findings of Dushay and colleagues indicate an unanticipated role of human FGF21 in fructose metabolism. Following fructose ingestion, FGF21 serum levels rise rapidly.

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Novel functional role of astrocytesIntroduction of a high-fat diet to mice results in a period of voracious feeding before mechanisms prevail to restore energy intake to an isocaloric level. Buckman and colleagues show that NFκB-mediated activation of astrocytes contributes to this homeostatic response.

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HDAC4 regulates cognitive, metabolic and endocrine functions through its expression in osteoblastsOsteocalcin, a hormone secreted by osteoblasts, influences a wide range of physiological functions such as spatial learning, memory, male fertility and insulin secretion. Makinistoglu and Karsenty demonstrate that HDAC4 regulates Osteocalcin expression and many of the hormone's endocrine functions. Through its expression in osteoblasts, HDAC4 also regulates appetite that is not affected by osteocalcin.

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Glucose-regulated insulin production in the liver improves glycemic control in type 1 diabetic miceType 1 diabetes results from insulin deficiency secondary to autoimmune destruction of β-cells. In an innovative approach Zhang and Dong chose the liver as an insulin-producing surrogate. The authors show that hepatic insulin production from an enhanced glucose-responsive system is capable of correcting insulin deficiency and reversing hyperglycemia in type 1 diabetic mice.

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The 60 Second Metabolist
In this section authors briefly report on their work recently published in Molecular Metabolism.

Watch the most recent interview by clicking the video still. The link "referring article" directs you to this author's publication.



Randy J. Seeley, Henriette Frikke-Schmidt
University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, USA
Referring article

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