Glucagon-like peptide 1 (GLP-1) is a multifaceted hormone that has diverse metabolic effects. Müller et al. provide a comprehensive overview of the literature on GLP-1, including historical records from the discovery of GLP-1 and its identification as a gastrointestinal insulinotropic hormone, as well as detailed discussion of its synthesis, secretion, and degradation. The receptors for GLP-1 are described, as well as the molecular mechanisms underlying GLP-1-induced insulin secretion.
GLP-1 has a plethora of effects: it influences beta-cell proliferation and apoptosis, glucagon secretion, the cardiovascular system, food intake and body weight, water intake, energy expenditure, gastric emptying, the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis, learning and memory, and bone. GLP-1 analogs are already being used for the treatment of diabetes, and GLP-1 based obesity treatments are in the process of clinical evaluation. There is considerable and ongoing effort to further optimize their action profile to improve therapeutic outcome. Overall, the multifaceted nature of GLP-1 action makes it an interesting starting point for the development of treatments for various diseases.Full Text