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Volume 5 | No. 5 | May 2016

Obesogenic memory can confer long-term increases in adipose tissue after weight lossSchmitz and colleagues analyze the effect of caloric restriction in high fat diet-induced obesity in mice. Their experiments reveal that weight reduction efficiently improves systemic glucose tolerance and that insulin sensitivity is improved in the liver upon weight loss but does not equally improve in adipose tissue after weight reduction. While obesity-induced hepatic inflammation resolves upon weight loss, adipose-tissue inflammation persists.

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Thioesterase superfamily member 1 suppresses cold thermogenesis by limiting the oxidation of lipid droplet-derived fatty acidsOkada and colleagues examine thioesterase superfamily member (Them) 1-mediated regulation of energy expenditure when mice are challenged with cold stress and the mechanism responsible for this effect. They demonstrate that Them1 in brown adipose tissue (BAT) suppresses non-shivering thermogenesis by limiting the oxidation of lipid droplet-derived fatty acids. They propose that Them1 in BAT directly regulates the availability of substrates to be utilized for β-oxidation and uncoupling.

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White-to-brite conversion in adipocytes promotes metabolic reprogramming Brite (brown-in-white) fat cells may originate from de novo differentiation of precursor cells or arise from direct conversion of mature white fat cells. Barquissau, Beuzelin et al. demonstrate that human mature white adipocytes can be converted into brite cells expressing thermogenic markers and displaying a wide metabolic reprogramming. Pyruvate dehydrogenase kinase 4 is identified as a crucial mediator redirecting glucose towards triglyceride synthesis, thereby favouring fatty acid use as energy substrate for uncoupling mitochondria.

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Inter-domain tagging implicates caveolin-1 in insulin receptor trafficking and Erk signalling bias Boothe et al. investigate the internalization and trafficking of functional insulin receptors (InsR) by labelling InsR proteins between domains with pH-resistant fluorescent proteins and by using antibodies to assess endogenous proteins. Using super-resolution, total internal reflection fluorescence (TIRF), and confocal imaging, they identify a Cav1-Flot1 trafficking pathway for insulin receptors in pancreatic beta-cells.

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The 60 Second Metabolist
In this section authors briefly report on their work recently published in Molecular Metabolism.

Watch the most recent interview by clicking the video still. The link "referring article" directs you to this author's publication.

Marc Reitman
National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, USA
Referring article

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